Using neem in agriculture

Neem has been recognized as a natural product that could help a lot in managing global problems in agriculture, environment and public health problems.

Neem is considered to be a valuable instrument for sustainable development. Researchers all around the world are focused on the importance of neem in agriculture. The tree and hundreds of its active compounds have no toxic reactions, so they are helpful in plant protection and its production. The fruit, leaves and extracts are used in agriculture. The products produced by using the neem tree function as an insect growth regulator(Insect Growth Regulators – IGR), and also control nematodes and fungi. Products made of neem reduce growth of insects in crops and don’t have side effects for people, mammals, useful insects (bees, butterflies…) and earthworms.

Usage of the oil

USE:

use 10 to 30 ml of neem oil for one liter of water (1 to 3 spoons) and 1 to 3 ml of liquid detergent (¼ to 1 teaspoon), and spray the plant for protection. Prepare a new mixture every time before using it.

It controls black spots, protects from fungal infections such as mold and rust (phragmidium mucronatum), Powdery mildew (Oidium), destroys mites, aphids, whiteflies, and has effect on more than 200 species of insects and pests.

The chemical compound Azadirachtin has effect on hormonal system of the insects, including reproduction, feeding and possibility of flying. It also stops the development of the insects during various stages of metamorphosis.

The plants treated by neem oil mixtures block pests (rats, mice, cockroaches…) by its bitter taste. It has been proved that the active components of neem, such as azadirachtin, salannin, and meliantriol have insecticidal effect.

It is easy to recognize it due to its smell which reminds of garlic and has bitter taste. That taste helps eliminate insects which use plants for food. Neem oil was used by Australian shepherds to produce wool without pesticides and with much better quality.

Advantages of neem as a pesticide:

  • beneficial effects on the soil-neutralizes the acidity and fertilizes

  • it is ecologic-does not  have a bad effect on the environment

  • it is not toxic

  • can be combined with other ecological substances for even better effect

  • does not kill pests, but it influences their life cycle

  • anti-feedant features cause the pests stop eating treated plants

  • impossibility to develop resistance to neem

  • neem pesticides are soluble in water and help plants to grow

  • they work as repellents- repel the insects and pests

  • they control the reproduction of pests and insects
  • they are harmless for farmers and workers

It has been proved that neem has insecticidal effect on following insects:

  • American boll worm (Heliothis armigera)
  • Angoumis grain moth (Sitorega cerealella)
  • Bark eating caterpillar (Indarbela quadrinotata)
  • Beet leaf bug (Piesma quqdratum)
  • Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens)
  • Cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae)
  • Chafer beetle (Apogonia blancharid)
  • Citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella)
  • Confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum)
  • Corn aphid (Rhopaloispum maidis)
  • Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii)
  • Cotton boll worm (Erias fabia E. insulana E. vitella)
  • Dessert locust (Schistocera gregaria)
  • Diamond black moth (Plutella xylostella)
  • Diamond moth (Plutella maculipennis)
  • Gall midge (Orseolis oryzae)
  • Grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica)
  • Gram/Pod borer caterpillar (Heloithis armigera)
  • Green leafhopper (Nephotettix appicalis)
  • Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae)
  • Groundnut leafminer (Stomopteryx netaria)
  • Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)
  • Hairy caterpillar (Amsacta moorei)
  • Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium)
  • Leaf folder / roller (Cnaphalocrocis medicella)
  • Leafhopper (Nephotettix virescenes)
  • Leafminer (Aproaerema modicella)
  • Lesser grain borer (Rhizzopertha dominica)
  • Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna variverstis)
  • Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria)
  • Mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi)
  • Mustard saw fly (Athalia lugens proxima)
  • Mustard webworm (Crocidomia binotalis)
  • Oriental armyworm (Mythimna separate)
  • Pink Cotton boll worm (Petinophora gossypiella)
  • Pod fly (Melanogromyza obtusa)
  • Pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis)
  • Red hairy caterpillar (Amsacta albistriga)
  • Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reinform)
  • Rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros)
  • Rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica)
  • Rice skipper (Pelopidas mathias)
  • Root knot nematode (Melodidogyne incognita)
  • Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica)
  • Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus genus)
  • Rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
  • Saw toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis)
  • Scale insect (Saissetia nigra)
  • Spotted boll worm (Seleron persicae)
  • Serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolli)
  • Shoot/ fruit borer (Earias vittela)
  • Stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)
  • Stem fly (Melanagromyza phaseoli)
  • Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus brassicae)
  • Sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchaari)
  • Surface grasshopper (Chrotogonus trachypterus)
  • Termite (Microtermes species)
  • Tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
  • White backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera)
  • White fly (Bemisia tabaci)

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